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This study examines some issues critical to understanding the hadith literature in the modern context. It argues that this literature, despite its widely accepted status as a foundational source of Islam second in importance only to the Qur’an, continues to be a subject of controversy in some Muslim and non-Muslim quarters. This article brings together a small sample of problematic hadith narratives for the purpose of critically evaluating them according to certain criteria. This will be the basis for passing judgment over these pre-selected hadith that are, for instance, textually incompatible with the purport of the Qur’an.